This page provides access to all research articles developed by the HIV Modelling Consortium, in addition to meeting reports and relevant reading.
Predicted levels of HIV drug resistance: potential impact of expanding diagnosis, retention, and eligibility criteria for antiretroviral therapy initiation.Abstract:Download PDF: 3.pdf
BACKGROUND: There is concern that the expansion of antiretroviral roll-out may impact future drug resistance levels and hence compromise the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an individual and population level. We aimed to predict future drug resistance in South Africa and its long-term effects.
METHODS: The previously validated HIV Synthesis model was calibrated to South Africa. Resistance was modeled at the level of single mutations, transmission potential, persistence, and effect on drug activity.
RESULTS: We estimate 652 000 people (90% uncertainty range: 543 000-744 000) are living with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs)-resistant virus in South Africa, 275 000 in majority virus [Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistant virus present in majority virus (NRMV)] with an unsuppressed viral load. If current diagnosis and retention in care and eligibility criteria are maintained, in 20 years' time HIV incidence is projected to have declined by 22% (95% confidence interval, CI -23 to -21%), and the number of people carrying NNRTI resistance to be 2.9-fold higher. If enhancements in diagnosis and retention in care occur, and ART is initiated at CD4 cell count less than 500 cells/μl, HIV incidence is projected to decline by 36% (95% CI: -37 to -36%) and the number of people with NNRTI resistance to be 4.1-fold higher than currently. Prevalence of people with viral load more than 500 copies/ml carrying NRMV is not projected to differ markedly according to future ART initiation policy, given the current level of diagnosis and retention are maintained.
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of resistance is projected to increase substantially. However, introduction of policies to increase ART coverage is not expected to lead to appreciably higher prevalence of HIV-positive people with resistance and viral load more than 500 copies/ml. Concern over resistance should not stop expansion of treatment availability.
Using modeling to inform international guidelines for antiretroviral treatment.
The costs and benefits of Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.Abstract:Download PDF: 2. Gopalappa_Option B plus_AIDS 2014.pdf
OBJECTIVE: Most countries follow WHO 2010 guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV using either Option A or B for women not yet eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both of these approaches involve the use of antiretrovirals during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Some countries have adopted a new strategy, Option B+, in which HIV-positive pregnant women are started immediately on ART and continued for life. Option B+ is more costly than Options A or B, but provides additional health benefits. In this article, we estimate the additional costs and effectiveness of Option B+.
METHODS: We developed a deterministic model to simulate births, breastfeeding, and HIV infection in women in four countries, Kenya, Zambia, South Africa, and Vietnam that differ in fertility rate, birth interval, age at first birth, and breastfeeding patterns, but have similar age at HIV infection. We estimated the total PMTCT costs and new child infections under Options A, B, and B+, and measured cost-effectiveness as the incremental PMTCT-related costs per child infection averted. We included adult sexual transmissions averted from ART, the corresponding costs saved, and estimated the total incremental cost per transmission (child and adult) averted.
RESULTS: When considering PMTCT-related costs and child infections, Option B+ was the most cost-effective strategy costing between $6000 and $23 000 per infection averted compared with Option A. Option B+ averted more child infections compared with Option B in all four countries and cost less than Option B in Kenya and Zambia. When including adult sexual transmissions averted, Option B+ cost less and averted more infections than Options A and B.
Towards an improved investment approach for an effective response to HIV/AIDS.Abstract:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60702-2
Substantial changes are needed to achieve a more targeted and strategic approach to investment in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic that will yield long-term dividends. Until now, advocacy for resources has been done on the basis of a commodity approach that encouraged scaling up of numerous strategies in parallel, irrespective of their relative effects. We propose a strategic investment framework that is intended to support better management of national and international HIV/AIDS responses than exists with the present system. Our framework incorporates major efficiency gains through community mobilisation, synergies between programme elements, and benefits of the extension of antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission. It proposes three categories of investment, consisting of six basic programmatic activities, interventions that create an enabling environment to achieve maximum effectiveness, and programmatic efforts in other health and development sectors related to HIV/AIDS. The yearly cost of achievement of universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support by 2015 is estimated at no less than US$22 billion. Implementation of the new investment framework would avert 12·2 million new HIV infections and 7·4 million deaths from AIDS between 2011 and 2020 compared with continuation of present approaches, and result in 29·4 million life-years gained. The framework is cost effective at $1060 per life-year gained, and the additional investment proposed would be largely offset from savings in treatment costs alone.
Strengthening The Use of Mathematical Models in Community Trials Workshop Report
HIV Modelling Consortium Initiative on Incidence Assay Characterisation Workshop Report
The Potential Impact of Treatment on HIV Incidence Workshop Report